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Glossary

   

Term Definition 
2G

Second Generation.

Refers to the second generation of mobile telephones using digital technology to transmit voice and data, which came into use in the 1990s.

The second generation technology used in Malaysia is called GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications).

Malaysia is using GSM 900 and GSM 1800.

Allocated Frequency Band in Malaysia:
GSM in the 900 MHz Band:
 a) Lower Band: 880 - 915 MHz
 b) Upper Band: 925 - 960 MHz

GSM in the 1800 MHz Band:
 a) Lower Band: 1710 - 1785 MHz
 b) Upper Band: 1805 - 1880 MHz


GSM Operators in Malaysia:
GSM in the 900 MHz Band:
 a) Celcom
 b) Maxis
 c) DiGi

GSM in the 1800 MHz Band:
 a) Celcom
 b) Maxis
 c) DiGi

For more information, please visit: Official Portal of MCMC

3G

Third Generation.

A new system giving high speed data links. These services operate at 2100 MHz (2.1 GHz).

The third generation technology used in the Malaysia is called UMTS.

Malaysia is using W-CDMA 2100 radio access technology (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) which is a component of IMT-2000 standard set (International Mobile Telecommunications-2000).

Allocated Frequency Band in Malaysia:
Frequency Division Duplex (FDD):
 a) Lower Band: 1920 - 2010 MHz
 b) Upper Band: 2110 - 2200 MHz

Time Division Duplex (TDD):
 a) Lower Band: 1915 - 1920 MHz
 b) Upper Band: 2010 - 2025 MHz


IMT-2000 Operators in Malaysia:
 a) Celcom
 b) UMTS
 c) U Mobile
 d) DiGi

For more information, please visit: Official Portal of MCMC

 Antenna


A passive device designed to radiate and receive electromagnetic energy.

Cellular Tower

A cellular tower consists of the antenna(s) emitting electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency range, the supporting structure, the equipment cabinet and the cable structure. 

Also known as base station.

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access.

It is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies. IT should not be confused with the mobile phone standards called cdmaOne, CDMA2000 (the 3G evolution of cdmaOne) and WCDMA (the 3G standard used by GSM carriers), which are often referred to as simply CDMA. and used CDMA as an underlying channel access method.

One of the concepts in data communication is the idea of allowing several transmitters to send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This allows several uses to share a band of frequencies (bandwidth). This concept is called multiple access.

CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code) to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical channel.

By contrast, TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) divides access by time, while FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) divides it by frequency. CDMA is a form of spread-spectrum signaling, since the modulated coded signal has a much higher data bandwidth than the data being communicated.

An analogy to multiple access is a room (channel) in which people wish to talk to each other simultaneously. To avoid confusion, people could take turns speaking (time division), speak at different pitches (frequency division), or speak in different languages (code division). CDMA is analogous to the last example where people speaking the same language can understand each other, but the other languages are perceived as noise and rejected. Similarly, in radio CDMA, each group of users is given a shared code. Many codes occupy the same channel, but only uses associated with a particular code can communicate.

Coverage


Denotes the area in which a mobile phone can make and receive calls. It is often described by networks in terms of the percentage of population that can use the service rather than the actual geographic coverage.

dBW  
dBW.

dBW is a convenient unit to express a power in relation to a reference level of 1 Watt.

dBW = 10*log (Power in Watts)

To convert a power expressed in dBW into a power in Watts:

Watts = 10^(dBW/10)

DS-CDMA
Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access.

It is a multiple access scheme based on DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum), by spreading the signals from / to different users with different codes. It is the most widely used type of CDMA.
 
EDGE
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution.

Also known as Enhanced GPRS. It is a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates as a backward-compatible extension of GSM. EDGE is considered a pre-3G radio technology.

EDGE delivers higher bit-rates per radio channel, resulting in a threefold increase in capacity and performance compared with an ordinary GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) / GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) connection. It can be used for any packet switched application, such as an internet connection.

Electric Field Strength


The vector quantity that corresponds to the force exerted on a charged particle regardless of its motion in space. It is expressed in volts per meter (V/m).

Exposure Ranking
 
The IEEE and many national governments have established safety limits for exposure to various frequencies of electromagnetic energy, mainly based on ICNIRP Guidelines, in order to ensure no undesirable effects on human health will occur due to exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations.

The exposure ranking used in MYRF is based on ICNIRP Guideline limit. The ranking indicates exposure level field strength / power density, in reference to the internationally recognized safety limit.

Frequency


The number of complete cycles of an electromagnetic wave in a second measured in units of Hertz (Hz).
 

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service.

It is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3G cellular communication system based on GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) technology.

GPRS usage is typically charged based on volume of data. This contrasts with circuit switching data, which is typically billed per minute of connection time, regardless of whether or not the user transfers data during that period.
 
GSM

 
Global System for Mobile Communications.

The international, operating standard for the current generation of digital cellular mobile communications. Enables mobile phones to be used across national boundaries.
 

HSDPA
High-Speed Downlink Packet Access.

It is an enhanced 3G mobile phone communications protocol in the HSPA family. Also known as 3.5G, 3G+, or turbo 3G, which allows network based on UMTS to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. Current HSDPA deployments support down-link speeds of 42Mb/s. Further speed increases are available with HSPA+, which provides speeds of up to 337Mb/s with Release 11 of the 3GPP standards.

HSPA
High-Speed Packet Access.

It is a combination of two mobile phone protocols, HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Accessand HSUPA (High-Speed Uplink Packet Access), that extends and improves the performance of existing WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) protocols. A further 3GPP standard, Evolved HSPA (also known as HSPA+) was released late in 2008 with subsequent worldwide adoption beginning in 2010.
  
HSUPA
High-Speed Uplink Packet Access.

It is a 3G mobile phone protocol in the HSPA family with up-link speeds up to 5.76 Mb/s. 

ICNIRP
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.

It is an independent non-profit international commission specialized in non-ionizing radiation protection. The organization's activities include determining exposure limits for electromagnetic fields used by devices such as cellular phones.

Its members are scientists employed typically by universities or radiation protection agencies. They do not represent their country of origin, nor their institute and cannot be employed by commercial companies.

ISO/IEC 17025  
General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories.

It is the main ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standard used by testing and calibration laboratories. There are many commonalities with the ISO9000 standard, but ISO/IEC 17025 adds in the concept of competence to the equation.

ISO/IEC 17025 applies to those organizations that produce testing and calibration results. Its first release was in 1999, and the second release was in 2005 in order to have its quality system words more closely aligned with the 2000 version of ISO9001.

The main purpose of ISO/IEC 17025 is to ensure testing and calibration laboratories' technical competency to consistently produce valid results. This is achieved by implementing a quality system in the laboratories.

The standard is about competence, accreditation by an accreditation body is a formal recognition of a demonstration of that competence. A prerequisite for a laboratory to become accredited is to have a documented quality management system.
The usual contents of the quality manual follow the outline of the ISO/IEC 17025 standard.


ISM
 
Industrial, Scientific and Medical.


ITE
 
Information Technology Equipment.



LMR
 
Land Mobile Radio.



Maximum Licensed Power


In EiRP dBW per channel. The maximum licensed power is the maximum power any one antenna is allowed to transmit per channel. In practice, most transmitters would operate substantially below this limit.

Mobile Network Operator (MNO)


It is a provider of wireless communications services that owns or controls all the elements necessary to sell and deliver servies to an end user including radio spectrum allocation, wireless network infrastructure, back haul infrastructure, billing, customer care and provisioning and repair organizations.

Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO)


It is a wireless communications services provider that does not own the radio spectrum or wireless network infrastructure over which the MVNO provides services to its customers. An MVNO enters into a business agreement with a mobile network operator to obtain bulk access to network services at wholesale rates, then sets retail prices independently.

 

Power Density

A measure of the radiated power reaching unit area of a surface. The accepted unit for this parameter is watts per square meter (W m-2). However, the older measure milliwatts per square centimeter (mW cm-2) is still encountered.

1 mW cm-2 is equivalent to 10 W m-2.
 
RF

Radio Frequency.

Also used generally to refer to the radio signal generated by the system transmitter, or to energy present from other sources that may be picked up by a wireless receiver.

Semi-Anechoic Chamber (SAC)   
An anehoic chamber (an-echoic meaning non-echoing or echo-free) is a room designed to stop reflections of electromagnetic waves. It is also insulated from exterior sources of noise. The combination of both aspects mean they simulate a quiet open-space, which is important when exterior interference would otherwise give false results.

Semi-anechoic chamber is constructed with a ground plane on the floor, and with RF (Radio Frequency) absorbing materials on four sides of wall as well as the ceiling. It is designed to reduce reflection and external RF interference / noise.

 
Spread Spectrum
In telecommunications and radio communication, spread spectrum techniques are methods by which a signal (e.g. an electrical, electromagnetic, or acoustic signal) generated in a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth. These techniques are used for a variety of reasons, including the establishment of secure communications, increasing resistance to natural interference, noise and jamming, to prevent detection, and to limit power flux density (e.g. in satellite downlinks).

Transmitted Power


The design power for the particular channel, during quiet periods the power may be less then the stated EiRP.

Types of Transmission


This is specified in terms of the technology used. The most common types of cellular technologies operate in Malaysia are GSM and UMTS. 

 UMTS
 
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System.

It is a 3G mobile cellular technology for networks based on the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) standard. Developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), UMTS is a component of the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) IMT-2000 standard set, and compares with the CDMA2000 standard set for networks based on the competing cdmaOne technology.

UMTS employs W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) radio access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators. UMTS specifies a complete network system, covering the radio access network (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, or UTRAN), the core network (Mobile Application Part, or MAP) and the authentication of users via SIM cards (Subscriber Identity Module).

UMTS requires new base stations and new frequency allocations.


W-CDMA

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access.  

It is a 3G mobile phone communications protocol. It is the most commonly used member of the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) family and sometimes used as a synonym for UMTS. 

It utilizes the DS-CDMA (Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Access) channel access method and the FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) duplexing method to achieve higher speeds and support more users compared to most time division multiple access (TDMA) and time division duplex (TDD) schemes used today.

While not an evolutionary upgrade on the airside, it uses the same core network as the 2G GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) networks deployed worldwide, allowing dual-mode operation along with GSM/EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution); an achievement it shares with other members in the UMTS family.
 
WiMAX
Wireless Interoperability Microwave Access.

WiMAX is a last mile broadband wireless technology based on IEEE 802.16 fixed application standard optimized to deliver high speed multimedia services at higher rates up to 75 Mbps to the end user.

This service operates at 2300 MHz frequency band in Malaysia.

Allocated Frequency Band in Malaysia:
Peninsular Malaysia: 2300 - 2390 MHz
Sabah and Sarawak: 2375 - 2400 MHz

WiMAX Operators in Malaysia:
 a) Asiaspace
 b) Yes
 c) P1
 d) RedTone

For more information, please visit: Official Portal of MCMC
 



Want To Know More?

Contact us if you would like to have RF exposure level of cellular tower located near your neighbourhood measured by professional EMF personnel. If you are unable to locate a cellular tower, or should you have any enquiries or feedback, feel free to talk to us.






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